Egyptian tomb with wall paintings
Mosque in Cairo
Egypt: In the land of the pharaohs and pyramids, travellers follow the traces of one of the oldest advanced civilizations in the world. The African state can call world-famous cultural sites such as the pyramids of Giza, the temple of Abu Simbel or the Valley of the Kings its own. Desert tours, diving and snorkelling are popular activities among those who are still not tired of visiting the attractions. Recreational vacationers are attracted to Hurghada, Sharm El-Sheikh or El Gouna.
DUE TO THE UNCERTAIN POLITICAL SITUATION, TRAVELLING TO THE SINAI PENINSULA, THE SAHARA AND THE BORDER AREA IS NOT RECOMMENDED!
Discover the region
In the land of the Nile
Egypt lies in the northeast of Africa. In the south the state borders on Sudan, in the west on Libya and in the northeast on Israel. The entire country is crossed by its lifeline - the Nile - which flows into the Mediterranean Sea via the fertile Nile delta. Most of the almost square-shaped land area is formed by the Sahara, which is called the Libyan Desert west of the Nile and the Arabian Desert east of the river.
The Sinai Peninsula, which connects Africa and Asia, also belongs to the Egyptian territory. It is bordered by the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba. The Suez Canal, opened in 1869, is the connection between the Gulf of Suez and the Mediterranean Sea.
Population and economy
More than 94 million people live in Egypt, about a third of them in the capital Cairo alone. Giza and the port city of Alexandria are also cities with several million inhabitants. The majority of the population is made up of Arabic-speaking descendants of the ancient Egyptians, including the Fellahs and the Copts. There are also Nubians and nomadic peoples such as the Bedscha and the Berbers.
Agriculture is only possible on the banks of the Nile, in the fertile Nile delta and in the oases. In addition to cattle breeding, cotton, sugar cane, fruit and vegetables and rice are cultivated. Oil, natural gas and iron ore are among Egypt's valuable mineral resources.
Tourism is also an important branch of the economy. Besides the famous cultural sites, seaside resorts such as Hurghada and Sharm El-Sheikh on the Red Sea are among the most popular destinations. Recently, however, attacks have repeatedly put a severe damper on the influx of tourists.
The high culture of the Egyptians
The high culture of ancient Egypt lasted from about 3000 BC to 395 AD. It can be divided into several sections: At the time of the Old Empire (approx. 2707-2216 BC), the pharaohs were worshipped in a god-like manner and were given majestic tombs in the form of pyramids.
The Middle Kingdom (ca. 2137-1781 BC) was the heyday of literature and art. The temple sites of Karnak and Luxor were built. The New Kingdom (approx. 1550-1070 B.C.) was the time of the rulers Thutmosis I, Akhenaton and Ramses. Gradually the empire broke apart under foreign rulers. 332 B.C. Egypt was conquered by Alexander the Great, the Greek-Roman period began.